This guide provides a set of tested sailing instructions designed primarily for major championship regattas for one or more classes It therefore will be particularly useful for world, continental and national championships and other events of similar importance. The guide can also be useful for other events; however, for such events some of these instructions will be unnecessary or undesirable. Race officers should therefore be careful in making their choices.

An expanded version of the guide, Appendix LE, is available on the World Sailing website. It contains provisions applicable to the largest and most complicated multi-class events, as well as variations on several of the sailing instructions recommended in this appendix. It will be revised from time to time, to reflect advances in race management techniques as they develop, and can be downloaded as a basic text for producing the sailing instructions for any particular event. Appendix L can also be downloaded from the World Sailing website.

The principles on which all sailing instructions should be based are as follows:
  1. They should include only two types of statement: the intentions of the race committee and protest committee and the obligations of competitors.
  2. They should be concerned only with racing. Information about social events, assignment of moorings, etc., should be provided separately.
  3. They should not change the racing rules except when clearly desirable. (When they do so, they must follow rule 86 by referring specifically to the rule being changed and stating the change.)
  4. They should not repeat or restate any of the racing rules.
  5. They should not repeat themselves.
  6. They should be in chronological order; that is, the order in which the competitor will use them.
  7. They should, when possible, use words or phrases from the racing rules.
Rule references within the sailing instructions use RRS, SI and NoR to denote the source of the rule. ‘RRS x’ is a rule in The Racing Rules of Sailing. ‘SI x’ is a rule in the sailing instructions, and ‘NoR x’ is a rule in the notice of race.

To use this guide, first review rule J2 and decide which instructions will be needed. Instructions that are required by rule J2.1 are marked with an asterisk (*). Delete all inapplicable or unnecessary instructions. Select the version preferred where there is a choice. Follow the directions in the left margin to fill in the spaces where a solid line ( _____ ) appears and select the preferred wording if a choice or option is shown in brackets ([ . . . ]).

After deleting unused instructions, renumber all instructions in sequential order. Be sure that instruction numbers are correct where one instruction refers to another.

Care should be taken to ensure that there is no conflict between a rule in the notice of race and a rule in sailing instructions. If the sailing instructions are made available electronically, printed copies should be provided on request.

 | On separate lines, insert the full name of the regatta, the inclusive dates from equipment inspection, event measurement or the practice race until the final race or closing ceremony, the name of the organizing authority, and the city and country. 

| SAILING INSTRUCTIONS The notation ‘[DP]’ in a rule in the SI means that the penalty for a breach of that rule may, at the discretion of the protest committee, be less than disqualification.

| 1  | RULES
| 1.1*  | The regatta will be governed by the rules as defined in The Racing Rules of Sailing.
| Use the first sentence if appropriate. Insert the name. List by number and title the prescriptions that will not apply (see RRS 88.2). Use the second sentence if it applies and if entries from other national authorities are expected, and state the prescriptions in full. Include the prescriptions in English when appropriate (see RRS 90.2(b)).

| 1.2  | [The following prescriptions of the _____ national authority will not apply: _____.] [The prescriptions that will apply are stated in full below.]
| (OR)  |
| Use if appropriate, but only if the national authority for the venue of the event has not adopted a prescription to RRS 88. 
| 1.2  | No national prescriptions will apply.

| List by name any other documents that govern the event; for example, The Equipment Rules of Sailing, to the extent that they apply. 
| 1.3*  | _____ will apply.

| See RRS 86. Either insert here the rule number(s) and state the changes, or, if not using this instruction, do the same in each instruction that changes a racing rule.
| 1.4  | Racing rule(s) _____ will be changed as follows: _____.

| Insert the rule number(s) and class name. Make a separate statement for the rules of each class. 
| 1.5  | Under RRS 87, rule(s) _____ of the _____ class rules [will not apply] [is (are) changed as follows: _____].

| 1.6  | If there is a conflict between languages the English text will take precedence.

| Insert the location(s). If notices are online, state how and where they may be found. 
Notices to competitors will be posted on the official notice board(s) located at ____.
| Change the times if different. 

Any change to the sailing instructions will be posted before 0900 on the day it will take effect, except that any change to the schedule of races will be posted by 2000 on the day before it will take effect.

| Insert the location. 
| 4.1  | Signals made ashore will be displayed at _____.

| Insert the number of minutes. 
| 4.2  | When flag AP is displayed ashore, ‘1 minute’ is replaced with ‘not less than _____ minutes’ in the race signal AP.
| (OR)  |
| Insert the number of minutes.
| 4.2  | Flag D with one sound means ‘The warning signal will be made not less than _____ minutes after flag D is displayed. [Boats are requested not to leave the harbour until this signal is made.] [Boats shall not leave the harbour until this signal is made. [DP]]’

| Revise as desired and insert the dates and classes. Include a practice race if any. When the series consists of qualifying races and final races, specify them. The schedule can also be given in an attachment.

| 5.1* 
| Dates of racing:

| Insert the classes and numbers. 
| 5.2*  | Number of races:
| Class  | Number  | Races per day
| _____  | ______  | ___________
One extra race per day may be sailed, provided that no class becomes more than one race ahead of schedule and the change is made according to SI 3.
| Insert the time. 
| 5.3*  | The scheduled time of the warning signal for the first race each day is _____.

| 5.4  | To alert boats that a race or sequence of races will begin soon, the orange starting line flag will be displayed with one sound at least five minutes before a warning signal is made.

| Insert the time. 
| 5.5  | On the last scheduled day of racing no warning signal will be made after _____.

This is a US Sailing Prescription
| 5.6  | Flag A displayed, with no sound, while boats are finishing means "No more racing today."

| Insert the classes and names or descriptions of the flags. 
Class flags will be:  | Class  | Flag
| ______________  | _____ | ____

| Insert a number or letter. 
Attachment _____ shows the location of racing areas.

| Insert a number or letter. A method of illustrating various courses is shown in Addendum A. Insert the course length if applicable. 
| 8.1*  | The diagrams in Attachment _____ show the courses, including the approximate angles between legs, the order in which marks are to be passed, and the side on which each mark is to be left. [The approximate course length will be _____.]

| 8.2  | No later than the warning signal, the race committee signal vessel will display the approximate compass bearing of the first leg.

| 8.3  | Courses will not be shortened. This changes RRS 32.

| Include only when changing positions of marks is impracticable. 
| 8.4  | Legs of the course will not be changed after the preparatory signal. This changes RRS 33.

| 9  | MARKS
| Change the mark numbers as needed and insert the descriptions of the marks. Use the second alternative when Marks 4S and 4P form a gate, with Mark 4S to be left to starboard and Mark 4P to port. 
| 9.1*  | Marks 1, 2, 3 and 4 will be _____.
| (OR)  |
| 9.1*  | Marks 1, 2, 3, 4S and 4P will be _____.
| (OR)  |
| Insert the number or letter used in SI 8.1. 
| 9.1*  | Marks are described in Attachment _____.

| Unless it is clear from the course diagrams, list the marks that are rounding marks. l
| 9.2  | The following marks are rounding marks: _____.

| Insert the descriptions of the marks.
| 9.3  | New marks, as provided in SI 12.1, will be _____.

| Describe the starting and finishing marks: for example, the race committee signal vessel at the starboard end and a buoy at the port end. SI 11.2 will describe the starting line and SI 13 the finishing line. 
| 9.4*  | The starting and finishing marks will be _____.

| Include if SI 12.2 is included.
| 9.5  | A race committee vessel signalling a change of a leg of the course is a mark as provided in SI 12.2.
| Describe each area by its location and any easily recognized details of appearance.

The following areas are designated as obstructions: _____.

| 11  | THE START
| Include only if the asterisked option in RRS 26 will be used. Insert the number of minutes.

| 11.1  | Races will be started by using RRS 26 with the warning signal made _____ minutes before the starting signal.
| (OR)  |
| Describe any starting system other than that stated in RRS 26. 
| 11.1  | Races will be started as follows: _____. This changes RRS 26.

| 11.2*  | The starting line will be between staffs displaying orange flags on the starting marks.
| (OR)  |
| 11.2*  | The starting line will be between a staff displaying an orange flag on the starting mark at the starboard end and the course side of the port-end starting mark.
| (OR)  |
| Insert the description.  | 11.2*  | The starting line will be _____.
| 11.3  | Boats whose warning signal has not been made shall avoid the starting area during the starting sequence for other races. [DP]

| Insert the number of minutes. 
| 11.4  | A boat that does not start within _____ minutes after her starting signal will be scored Did Not Start without a hearing. This changes RRS A4 and A5.

| Insert the channel number.
| 11.5  | If any part of a boat’s hull, crew or equipment is on the course side of the starting line during the two minutes before her starting signal and she is identified, the race committee will attempt to broadcast her sail number on VHF channel _____. Failure to make a broadcast or to time it accurately will not be grounds for a request for redress. This changes RRS 62.1(a).

| 12.1  | To change the next leg of the course, the race committee will move the original mark (or the finishing line) to a new position.
| (OR)  |
| 12.1  | To change the next leg of the course, the race committee will lay a new mark (or move the finishing line) and remove the original mark as soon as practicable. When in a subsequent change a new mark is replaced, it will be replaced by an original mark.

| When SI 12.2 is included, SI 9.5 must also be included. Reverse ‘port’ and ‘starboard’ when the mark is to be left to starboard. 
| 12.2  | Except at a gate, boats shall pass between the race committee vessel signalling the change of the next leg and the nearby mark, leaving the mark to port and the race committee vessel to starboard. This changes RRS 28.

| 13  | THE FINISH
| 13.1*  | The finishing line will be between staffs displaying orange flags on the finishing marks.
| (OR)  |
| 13.1*  | The finishing line will be between a staff displaying an orange flag on the finishing mark at the starboard end and the course side of the port-end finishing mark.
| (OR)  |
| Insert the description. 
| 13.1*  | The finishing line will be _____.

| 13.2  | If the race committee is absent when a boat finishes, she should report her finishing time, and her position in relation to nearby boats, to the race committee at the first reasonable opportunity.

| Include SI 14.1 only when the Two-Turns Penalty will not be used. Insert the number of places or describe the penalties.
| 14.1  | The Scoring Penalty, RRS 44.3, will apply. The penalty will be _____ places.
|   | (OR)  |
|   | 14.1  | The penalties are as follows: _____.

| Insert the class(es). 
| 14.2  | For the _____ class(es) RRS 44.1 is changed so that the Two-Turns Penalty is replaced by the One-Turn Penalty.

| Unless all of Appendix P applies, state any restrictions. 
| 14.3  | Appendix P will apply [as changed by SI(s) [14.2] [and] [14.4]].

| Recommended only for junior events. 
| 14.4  | RRS P2.3 will not apply and RRS P2.2 is changed so that it will apply to any penalty after the first one.

| Insert the classes and times. Omit the Mark 1 time limit and target time if inapplicable. 

| 15.1*  | Time limits and target times are as follows: 
| Class  | Time Limits  | Mark 1 Time Limit  | Target Time
| _____ | __________ | _______________ | __________
If no boat has passed Mark 1 within the Mark 1 time limit the race will be abandoned. Failure to meet the target time will not be grounds for redress. This changes RRS 62.1(a).

| Insert the time (or different times for different classes). 
| 15.2  | Boats failing to finish within _____ after the first boat sails the course and finishes will be scored Did Not Finish without a hearing. This changes RRS 35, A4 and A5.

| State the location if necessary. 
| 16.1  | Protest forms are available at the race office[, located at _____]. Protests and requests for redress or reopening shall be delivered there within the appropriate time limit.

| Change the time if different. 
| 16.2  | For each class, the protest time limit is 90 minutes after the last boat has finished the last race of the day or the race committee signals no more racing today, whichever is later.

| Change the posting time if different. Insert the protest room location and, if applicable, the time for the first hearing. 
| 16.3  | Notices will be posted no later than 30 minutes after the protest time limit to inform competitors of hearings in which they are parties or named as witnesses. Hearings will be held in the protest room, located at _____, beginning at [the time posted] [_____].

| 16.4  | Notices of protests by the race committee, technical committee or protest committee will be posted to inform boats under RRS 61.1(b).

| 16.5  | A list of boats that, under SI 14.3, have been penalized for breaking RRS 42 will be posted.

| 16.6  | Breaches of SIs 11.3, 18, 21, 23, 25, 26 and 27 will not be grounds for a protest by a boat. This changes RRS 60.1(a).

| 16.7  | On the last scheduled day of racing a request for redress based on a protest committee decision shall be delivered no later than 30 minutes after the decision was posted. This changes RRS 62.2.

| Include only if RRS 70.5 applies.
| 16.8  | Decisions of the [protest committee] [international jury] will be final as provided in RRS 70.5.

This is a US Sailing prescription
| 16.9  | If the race committee posts a list of boats scored OCS, ZFP, UFD or BFD on the official notice board before the protest time limit, a request for redress based on such a posted score shall be made no later than one hour after the protest time limit. This changes rule 62.2.

| 17  | SCORING

| Include only if the Low Point System of Appendix A will not be used. Describe the system. 
| 17.1  | The scoring system is as follows: _____.

| Insert the number. 
| 17.2  | _____ races are required to be completed to constitute a series.

| Insert the numbers throughout. 
| 17.3  | When fewer than _____ races have been completed, a boat’s series score will be the total of her race scores. When from _____ to _____ races have been completed, a boat’s series score will be the total of her race scores excluding her worst score. When _____ or more races have been completed, a boat’s series score will be the total of her race scores excluding her two worst scores.


| Insert the procedure for check-out and check-in. 
| 18.2  | A boat that retires from a race shall notify the race committee as soon as possible. [DP]

| 19.1  | Substitution of competitors will not be allowed without prior written approval of the [race committee] [protest committee]. [DP]

| 19.2  | Substitution of damaged or lost equipment will not be allowed unless authorized by the [race committee] [protest committee]. Requests for substitution shall be made to the committee at the first reasonable opportunity. [DP]

On the water, a boat can be instructed by a member of the race committee or the technical committee to proceed immediately to a designated area for inspection. Ashore, equipment may be inspected or measured at times specified in the class rules, the notice of race, and at the following time(s) _____.

| See World Sailing Regulation 20.4. Insert necessary information on the display of event advertising material. 
Boats shall display event advertising supplied by the organizing authority as follows: _____. If this rule is broken, World Sailing Regulation 20.9.2 applies. [DP]

| Insert the descriptions. If appropriate, use different identification markings for boats performing different duties.
Official boats will be marked as follows: _____.

| 23.1  | Team leaders, coaches and other support persons shall stay outside areas where boats are racing from the time of the preparatory signal for the first class to start until all boats have finished or retired or the race committee signals a postponement, general recall or abandonment. [DP]
| Insert the identification markings. National letters are suggested for international events. 

| 23.2  | Support boats shall be marked with _____. [DP]

Trash may be placed aboard support or official boats.

Keelboats shall not be hauled out during the regatta except with and according to the terms of prior written permission of the race committee. [DP]

Underwater breathing apparatus and plastic pools or their equivalent shall not be used around keelboats between the preparatory signal of the first race and the end of the regatta. [DP]

| Insert any alternative text that applies. Describe any radio communication bands or frequencies that will be used or allowed. 
Except in an emergency, a boat that is racing shall not make voice or data transmissions and shall not receive voice or data communication that is not available to all boats. [DP]

| If perpetual trophies will be awarded state their complete names. 
| 28  | PRIZES
Prizes will be given as follows: _____.

| The laws applicable to the venue in which the event is held may limit disclaimers. Any disclaimer should be drafted to comply with those laws. 
Competitors participate in the regatta entirely at their own risk. See RRS 4, Decision to Race. The organizing authority will not accept any liability for material damage or personal injury or death sustained in conjunction with or prior to, during, or after the regatta.

| Insert the currency and amount. 
Each participating boat shall be insured with valid third-party liability insurance with a minimum cover of _______ per incident or the equivalent.


Shown here are diagrams of course shapes. The boat’s track is represented by a discontinuous line so that each diagram can describe courses with different numbers of laps. If more than one course may be used for a class, state how each particular course will be signalled.
Options for this course include
  1. increasing or decreasing the number of laps,
  2. deleting the last windward leg,
  3. using a gate instead of a leeward mark,
  4. using an offset mark at the windward mark, and
  5. using the leeward and windward marks as starting and finishing marks.
Options for this course include
  1. increasing or decreasing the number of laps,
  2. deleting the last windward leg,
  3. varying the interior angles of the triangle (45º–90º–45º and 60º–60º–60º are common),
  4. using a gate instead of a leeward mark for downwind legs,
  5. using an offset mark at the beginning of downwind legs, and
  6. using the leeward and windward marks as starting and finishing marks.
Be sure to specify the interior angle at each mark.
Options for these courses include
  1. adding additional legs,
  2. replacing the gate shown by a single mark, or using a gate also in the outer loop,
  3. varying the interior angles of the reaching legs,
  4. using an offset mark at the beginning of downwind legs, and
  5. finishing boats upwind rather than on a reach.
Be sure to specify the interior angle of each reaching leg.


The following sailing instruction is recommended when all boats will be provided by the organizing authority. It can be changed to suit the circumstances. When used, it should be inserted after SI 3.

 | 4  | BOATS
| 4.1  | Boats will be provided for all competitors, who shall not modify them or cause them to be modified in any way except that a compass may be tied or taped to the hull or spars; wind indicators, including yarn or thread, may be tied or taped anywhere on the boat; hulls, centreboards and rudders may be cleaned, but only with water; adhesive tape may be used anywhere above the water line; and all fittings or equipment designed to be adjusted may be adjusted, provided that the class rules are complied with.

| 4.2  | All equipment provided with the boat for sailing purposes shall be in the boat while afloat.

| 4.3  | The penalty for not complying with one of the above instructions will be disqualification from all races sailed in which the instruction was broken.

| 4.4  | Competitors shall report any damage or loss of equipment, however slight, to the organizing authority’s representative immediately after securing the boat ashore. The penalty for breaking this instruction, unless the protest committee is satisfied that the competitor made a determined effort to comply, will be disqualification from the race most recently sailed.

| 4,5  | Class rules requiring competitors to be members of the class association will not apply.
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